Abstract: Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models. Free full text http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709226/
Kim Anh Thi Nguyen, Curtis M. Jolly, Chuong N. P. T. Bui and Trang T. H. Le. Aquaculture economics & management, 2016, volume 20, number 1, pp. 82-108.
Abstract: Research results on the effects of aquaculture on poverty alleviation have been mixed. We use Tobit, simulation models and cross sectional survey data of 285 households, in Ben Tre Province, Vietnam, to evaluate the effects of aquaculture involvement on poverty, measured using per capita consumption of less than $1.25 USD, $1.50, and $2.00 per day. The results show for per capita consumption of less than $1.25 per day that households? aquaculture participation or productivity had no or little effect on the living standard. For income levels above $1.25 per capita per day aquaculture participation or productivity influenced the standard of living. [wiley].