Agriculture and rural development
· Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural
workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum
· An innovative model of park governance: evidence from
· PlaNet Finance: A New Microfinance Loan in Cambodia and
· Balancing Inclusiveness, Rigour and Feasibility: Insights
from Participatory Impact Evaluations in Ghana and Vietnam.
· Counter-cyclical fiscal policy in Vietnam: Theory,
evidence and policy recommendation.
· Determinants Repayment Performance Of Borrowers In Rural
Mekong Delta Of Vietnam.
· Does Migration Support Technology Diffusion in Developing
· Empirical Analysis of Factors Promoting Product
Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use.
· The Factors Affect the Quality of Financial Statements
Audit in Vietnam Businesses.
· Resources, experience and perseverance in entrepreneurs'
perceived likelihood of success in an emerging economy.
· Robust Measures of Core Inflation for Vietnam.
· Teachers’ Evaluation of Primary English Textbooks for Vietnamese
Schools Developed under the National Foreign Language 2020 Project: A
Preliminary Internal Survey.
· Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University
Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research “Behaviour
· Conservation Versus Development: Valuation of Coral Reefs
Questions Port Expansion Plan in Vietnam.
· Use conflicts in marine ecosystem-based management — The
case of oil versus fisheries.
· Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion
technologies for household wastes in Vietnam.
· Trading in broken things: Gendered performances and
spatial practices in a northern Vietnamese rural-urban waste economy.
· Innovative governance from public policy unities.
· Localizing Global Competition Law In Vietnam: A Bottom-Up
· Combating corruption in Vietnam: a commentary.
· Strategic and transactional costs of corruption:
perspectives from Vietnamese firms.
· What next for anti-corruption research in Vietnam?
· Women, Land and Law in Vietnam.
· Analysis of selected social determinants of health and
their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality
· Economic vulnerability of methadone maintenance patients:
Implications for policies on co-payment services.
· The EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual
adequacy in cross-cultural research.
· The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social
determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme: A
qualitative assessment of four countries.
· Preference and willingness to pay for traditional
medicine services in rural ethnic minority community in Vietnam.
· Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population
Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian
· An international partnership analysis of a cohort of
Vietnamese children with hearing impairment.
· Knowledge, attitude and practices: assessing maternal and
child health care handbook intervention in Vietnam.
· Chronological, geographical, and seasonal trends of human
cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Vietnam, 2003–2014: a spatial analysis.
· International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy:
Challenges and Way Forward.
· Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across
eight countries in Southeast Asia.
· Routes Countries Can Take To Achieve Full Ownership Of
· Measuring progress towards universal health coverage:
with an application to 24 developing countries.
· Seafood safety compliance with hygiene regulations within
Vietnamese domestic distribution chains.
· Projecting the epidemiological effect, cost-effectiveness
and transmission of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam associated with viral load
· Infrastructural action in Vietnam: Inverting the
techno-politics of hacking in the global South.
· Changing sanitation infrastructure in Hanoi: hybrid
topologies and the networked city.
· The Nexus between Poverty and Deprivation in Vietnam.
· Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People
· Visual Ethics with and Through the Body: The
Participation of Girls with Disabilities in Vietnam in a Photovoice Project.
· Contesting Street Spaces in a Socialist City: Itinerant
Vending-Scapes and the Everyday Politics of Mobility in Hanoi, Vietnam.
· Many Faces of Security: Discursive Framing in
Cross-border Natural Resource Governance in the Mekong River Commission.
· Sustainable Flows: Water Management and Municipal
Flexibility in Bangkok and Hanoi.
· Variability of precipitation and its consequence to water
resources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
Agriculture and rural
knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng
region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.
Michael Houbraken, Ingvar
Bauweraerts, Davina Fevery, Marie-Christine Van Labeke and Pieter Spanoghe.
Science of The Total Environment, 2016, volume 550, pp. 1001-1009.
Abstract: Background In
Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to
benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment
when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to
determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers
towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected
data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. ---
Results The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in
the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide
knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and
diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or
government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide
usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days
during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or
to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small
percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal
protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed
that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. --- Conclusion While a
general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the
environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is
still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk
evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be
innovative model of park governance: evidence from Vietnam.
Tuan Phong Ly and Honggen Xiao.
Journal of Ecotourism, 2016, pp. 1-23.
Abstract: The Vietnamese
Special-Use Forests policy introduced in 2006 has transformed the park and
protected area governance of the country from being a state responsibility to a
multi-component system, under which power is distributed among public and
private sectors. This co-existing management model is a special form of
concession. This unique management model has long been applied to the
management of national parks (NPs) in Vietnam, but studies on the public and
private sectors and/or combined management bodies concurrently managing tourism
and recreation services in an NP are scarce. Thus, this study investigates the
co-existing management model in the Vietnamese park system with the Phong
Nha-Ke Bang National Park as a case study. The study describes, analyses and
evaluates the model, as well as explains how it works in the Vietnamese park
system. This study contributes to knowledge on the governance and management of
NPs in Vietnam. Practical applications of the governance model to park
management in other regions and countries are also discussed. [tf].
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Finance: A New Microfinance Loan in Cambodia and Vietnam.
Ashwin Malshe. in: Experiencing
Innovation in Asia, World Scientific, 2015, pp. 243-256.
In November 2012, Jay Supetran
was on a visit to Vietnam and Cambodia to study the impact of a last-stage
microfinance project in the agricultural sector. For the past two years he had
been working as Regional Coordinator in both countries for French microfinance
advisor PlaNet Finance (PF). The project, titled FinInc Asia, was aimed at
improving financial inclusion and social impact regarding food security in the
region. Specifically, PF was keen to tackle the lack of a relevant financial
product for vulnerable farmers in Vietnam and Cambodia. PF worked closely with a
few local microfinance institutions (MFIs) to design a new financial product,
the ‘Agri-Microfinance’ (AMF) loan. The purpose of the loan and the repayment
schedule were to better fit the needs of farmers. As a first step, only a few
MFIs were selected by PF to conduct a pilot test for AMF under FinInc Asia. In
the pilot test, the Cambodian MFI, Thaneakea Phum Cambodia (TPC) was performing
well, whereas the Vietnamese MFI, Thanh Hoa Fund (THF) had barely started to
develop its offering in the countryside….
Inclusiveness, Rigour and Feasibility: Insights from Participatory Impact
Evaluations in Ghana and Vietnam.
A. Van Hemelrijck and I. Guijt.
IDS CDI Practice Paper 14, 2016.
Abstract: This paper by Adinda
Van Hemelrijck and Irene Guijt explores how impact evaluation can live up to
standards broader than statistical rigour in ways that address challenges of
complexity and enable stakeholders to engage meaningfully. A Participatory
Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) was piloted to assess and
debate the impacts on rural poverty of two government programmes in Vietnam and
Ghana funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). We
discuss the trade-offs between rigour, inclusiveness and feasibility
encountered in these two pilots. Trade-offs occur in every impact evaluation
aiming for more than reductionist rigour, but the pilots suggest that they can
be reduced by building sufficient research and learning capacity. Free full
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fiscal policy in Vietnam: Theory, evidence and policy recommendation.
Tran Dinh Thien and Chu Minh
Hoi. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2016, volume 4, number
Abstract: A sound fiscal policy
could determine long-term development of a country. Developing countries
normally pursue pro-cyclical fiscal policy while advanced ones have better
conditions to adapt a more counter-cyclical one. In practice, a developing country
may still succeed in implementing a counter-cyclical policy, and a pro-cyclical
policy could result in a major failure even if it is executed by a developed
country. Real situation in Vietnam uncovers that the country has not
indentified a clear fiscal stance in the last 30 years; although government
expenditure seems to be expansionary most of the time, and budget deficit high
is even in good time period. Structural problems of the economy have recently
emerged, manifisted in slowing economic growth, inflation volatility. It is
potentially largely due to lack of a consistent fical policy. Implication is
drawn that Vietnam should institutionalize a counter-cyclical fiscal
policy. Free full text http://www.ejbss.com/Data/Sites/1/vol4no10january2016/ejbss-1678-16-counter-cyclicalfiscalpolicyinvietnam.pdf.
Repayment Performance Of Borrowers In Rural Mekong Delta Of Vietnam.
Mai Van Nam and Vuong Quoc Duy.
IJISET - International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering &
Technology, 2016, volume 3, number 1.
Abstract: This paper compares
the repayment performance of farmers and non-farmers who borrow credit in
individual and group-based schemes from formal banks in the Mekong Delta (MD)
in Vietnam. The data used in this paper were collected from three provinces of
the MD, and a double hurdle approach and an instrumental variable probit model
were applied to analyse the determinants of repayment performance of borrowers.
Scheduled repayment was analysed with loan size instrumented by a tobit model.
Results show that, among the borrowers, farmers have a statistically
significant higher repayment performance than non-farmers. Repayment in group
schemes seems to be positively affected by educational level and by loans to
farmers, and negatively by the loan amount, while repayment by independent
borrowers is positively affected by the loan amount, farmers as borrowers, and
the gender of borrowers. Free full text http://ijiset.com/vol3/v3s1/IJISET_V3_I1_42.pdf.
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Migration Support Technology Diffusion in Developing Countries?
Michael Hübler. World
Abstract: Summary The spread of
mobile phones in developing countries is a technological success story. Mobile
phones’ independence of landline telecommunication networks qualifies them for
information exchange even in remote rural areas. Whereas technology spillovers
via international trade and foreign direct investment have been widely explored
by the literature, international migration and rural–urban migration have
hardly been explored as vehicles for technology diffusion. Motivated by the
current extent of national and international migration, this paper addresses
this lacuna. It draws upon data from rural households in Thailand, Vietnam,
Laos, and Cambodia and uses households’ mobile phone ownership as an indicator
for rural technology diffusion. Migration is modeled via an endogenous
treatment regression approach. In a number of robustness checks, the variables,
the sample, and the estimation technique are varied. The results provide
empirical evidence for rural technology diffusion. In the survey areas,
poverty-driven rural–urban migration and related technology diffusion play a
more important role than technology spillovers via international migration. The
results show that total emigration as well as immigration can support
technology diffusion, i.e., the dispersion of mobile phones, beyond monetary
remittances. When controlling for education and household age (in a squared
fashion) in the main regressions and in several robustness checks, emigration
as well as immigration, however, exhibit a negative effect on households’
mobile phone ownership (“technology drain” or “technology impair” effect). For
development policy, the results suggest investments in education and the
creation of financial opportunities to support rural technology diffusion.
Analysis of Factors Promoting Product Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing
on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use.
Hiroki Idota, Teruyuki Bunno,
Yasushi Ueki and Sobee Shinohara, 2016.
Abstract: In recent years, East
Asian economies have been rapidly developing. The reason is that firms have
been successfully achieving product and process innovation by introducing
advanced technologies and know-how from MNCs. In order to enhance innovation,
firms have to own technology, capability and ICT use. In particular,
collaborations with outside organizations such as MNCs (Multi-national
corporations), universities, public organizations, local firms are
indispensable for firms in developing economies. Authors’ previous research
clarified external linkages enhance innovation capability and ICT use, and
innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation in ASEAN firms.
These studies analyzed under what conditions firms can promote absorptive
capability if they had external linkages. Whether or how absorptive capacity
affected innovation capability and ICT use were not explained there. Based on
survey data from four ASEAN economies such as Indonesia, the Philippines,
Thailand, and Vietnam, from 2013 to 2014, this study clarifies how absorptive
capacity, ICTs, and innovation capability such as QC and cross-functional team
enhance product innovation by using SEM (Structural equation modeling). As a
result, the following causality from external linkages (origin) to innovation
(final outcome) is demonstrated: (i) absorptive capacity is enhanced by
external linkages such as local firms, public organizations, and universities;
(ii) absorptive capacity enhances innovation capability; (iii) innovation
capability enhances ICT use; and (iv) innovation capability and ICT use promote
product innovation. These are similar to those of authors’ previous research.
Since data are different, it is difficult to compare the results, but the
robustness of the results is demonstrated. Free full text https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/itse15/127150.html.
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Factors Affect the Quality of Financial Statements Audit in Vietnam Businesses.
Do Huu Hai and Ngo Sy Trung.
Asian Social Science, 2016, volume 12, number 1.
Abstract: The development of a
market economy, especially the financial markets is asking for transparency and
truthfulness of the financial information with high quality. The information in
the financial statements will impact directly and indirectly to the rights and
decisions of investors. Independent auditors play a role of evaluating
truthfulness and reasonable financial information in enterprises, however there
are still risks. This study focuses on analyzing the factors affecting the
quality of financial statements audit in enterprises. The analytical methods
used in this study are: factor analysis method to explore and test the
Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the construction and testing of measuring
scales. Moreover, linear structural modeling method (Structural Equation Modeling
SEM) is used to test the reliability and value of discrimination, convergence,
unitary of the concept and scale of research. The study results showed that
occupational qualification is an important factor affecting the audit quality
in the establishment of the business financial statements and legal environment
factors, factors belonging to business, factor of independence, factors of
quality control system of audit firm. Free full text http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/view/52572.
experience and perseverance in entrepreneurs' perceived likelihood of success
in an emerging economy.
Quan Hoang Vuong, Thu Hang Do
and Thu Trang Vuong, 2016.
Abstract: This paper introduces
new results obtained from a statistical investigation into a3071-observation
data set collected from a Vietnamese nationwideentrepreneurship survey. From
established relationships, such factors aspreparedness, financial resources and
participation in social networks areconfirmed to have significant effects on
entrepreneurial decisions. Entrepreneurs,both financially constrained and
unconstrained, who have a business plan tend tostart their entrepreneurial
ventures earlier. Also, financial constraints have aprofound impact on the
entrepreneurial decisions. When perceiving the likelihoodof success to be high,
an entrepreneur shows the tendency for prompt action onbusiness ideas. But when
seeing the risk of prolonging the waiting time to firstrevenue, a prospective
entrepreneur would be more likely to wait for morefavorable conditions despite
the vagueness of "favorable".Additionally, empirical computations indicate
that there is a 41.3% probabi litythat an extant entrepreneur who is generating
revenue sees high chance ofsuccess. Past work and entrepreneurial experiences
also have positive impactson both the entrepreneurial decisions and perceived
chance of success. . Free full text http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sol:wpaper:2013/224585&r=sea.
Measures of Core Inflation for Vietnam.
Sanjay Kalra and Bui Thi Trang
Dzung. IMF Working Paper No. 16/19, 2016.
Abstract: The paper develops
robust measures of core inflation for Vietnam that can be used in policy
making. These core inflation measures (CIMs) are based on an analytical
evaluation of the inflation process in Vietnam, and use a filtering approach to
narrow down potential measures that satisfy certain empirically desirable
criteria. The paper finds that commonly used exclusion-based measures (EBMs) do
not perform well against these empirical criteria; trimmed mean measures (TMMs)
do better. Among TMMs, “one trim does not fit all periods”; periods of high and
variable inflation require larger trims, and conversely. EVIEWS and MATLAB
programs which accompany the paper allow quick, timely replication of CIMs as
new data become available, making them valuable tools for the State Bank of
Vietnam on an ongoing basis. Free full text http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=43692.0.
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Evaluation of Primary English Textbooks for Vietnamese Schools Developed under
the National Foreign Language 2020 Project: A Preliminary Internal Survey.
Hoang Van Van. VNU Journal of
Science: Education Research, 2015, volume 31, number 4.
Abstract: The aim of this
survey research is to get evaluative feedback from the teachers who are using
the primary English textbooks developed under the National Foreign Language
2020 Project to find out their strengths and weaknesses so that further
corrections and revisions will be made to perfect the materials before putting
them into use on a large scale. Overall, the results of the research have shown
that teachers’ evaluations of the textbooks are very positive. There are,
however, some things that need to be done to improve the quality of the
materials. The research consists of 4 parts. Part 1 provides a brief overview
of Ting Anh 3 and Ting Anh 4 - the two English textbooks which are being
piloted in 92 selected primary schools throughout Vietnam. Part 2 is concerned
with the design of the research which consists of aim of the research, sites
and subjects of the research, research instrument, the questionnaire, research
procedure, and method of data analysis. Part 3 presents in some detail research
findings and discussion of those findings. Part 4 provides a résumé of the
strengths and weaknesses of the textbooks as seen from the point of view of the
teachers’ evaluations, points out some limitations of the research and makes
some suggestions and recommendation for further study. Free full text http://tapchi.vnu.edu.vn/upload/2016/01/1901/1.pdf.
Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack
of an Effective Research “Behaviour Formalization” System.
Huong Thi Lan Nguyen and
Vincent Lynn Meek. Minerva, 2016, pp. 1-29.
Abstract: Structure and
organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about
institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university
capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems,
particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic
reactions to the structure and organization of research at four leading
Vietnamese universities. Through document analysis and semi-structured
interviews with 55 participants, the study finds that the four case-study
Vietnamese universities have accomplished a number of the more visible tasks of
research management such as creating research and research management
positions; deciding primary organizational units for research delivery;
creating a research office; and creating research oversight committees.
However, they seem to neglect the other less visible tasks of organizing and
structuring research such as developing rules for research integrity;
developing a mechanism for evaluating the quality of research outcomes;
preparing researchers and research managers for the necessary skills and
knowledge; and deciding vertical and horizontal decentralization. The study
concludes that even though research has been formally structured and organized,
the management of research has not yet been professionalized. The key problem
in organizing and structuring research is the lack of an effective system for research
behaviour formalization. A more effective system for better formalizing
research behaviours should be developed so that Vietnamese universities can
integrate more successfully into the global research.
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Versus Development: Valuation of Coral Reefs Questions Port Expansion Plan in
Pham Khanh Nam and Tran Vo Hung
Son. in: Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Valuation, Institutions, and Policy in
Southeast Asia, Springer Singapore, Singapore, 2016, pp. 47-69.
Abstract: Coral reefs in Nha
Trang City have been threatened by human activities such as use of dynamite,
illegal harvesting, shipping, and pollution from the nearby port development
project. How much recreational benefit from coral reefs is lost if these
activities are not held in check? Using travel cost method, this study estimated
the recreational value of coral reefs in Nha Trang to be VND 259.8 billion
(USD18.3 million) annually, of which Hon Mun’s consumer surplus was estimated
to be VND 45.4 billion (USD3.2 million). If this coral reef benefits were to be
reduced by 20 % due to increased pollution created by the nearby expanded port,
the resulting decrease in the recreational value would be more than the
projected annual revenue of the port. The proposed port expansion plan needs to
be seriously reconsidered. [spr].
conflicts in marine ecosystem-based management — The case of oil versus
Peter Arbo and Phạm
Thị Thanh Thủy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 2016, volume 122,
Abstract: Coastal states around
the world are currently adopting an integrated and ecosystem-based approach to
the management of coastal and ocean areas. The main aim is to promote resource
use while protecting the integrity of the marine ecosystems. Focus is therefore
on the conflict between economic development and conservation. Less attention
is paid to the complex uses of the ocean and the conditions for regulating
industrial activities and solving multi-use conflicts. This paper discusses
principles for dealing with use conflicts in the context of ecosystem-based
management. It argues that resolving use conflicts is not only an important
issue in its own right, but can also be important for the marine environment
and biodiversity. As an illustration, we look at the relationship between the
fishing industry and the offshore oil and gas industry in Norway and Vietnam.
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assessment of anaerobic digestion technologies for household wastes in Vietnam.
Rodolfo Daniel SILVA, Hung Anh
LE and Konrad KOCH. Journal of Vietnamese Environment, 2016, volume 7, number
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion
technologies have been utilized in Vietnam for more than 30 years with
thousands of domestic small scale plants, mostly for agricultural and livestock
wastes. For municipal solid waste (MSW) the development of biogas plants is far
below the current high waste generation rates. The aim of this paper is to
present the results of a feasibility assessment of implementing AD to treat the
organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in Vietnam. For this purpose,
an environmental analysis was performed comparing three treatment scenarios:
two hypothetical AD technologies (a wet and a dry fermentation system) and the
existing industrial composting facility at Nam Binh Duong Waste Treatment
Complex in South Vietnam. This study sought for the technology to recover the
most possible resources and energy from the OFMSW, and reduce greenhouse gas
(GHG) emissions. The results were then combined with a policy review to support
a holistic approach on the feasibility of these technologies in Vietnam. The
outcome indicates that by implementing the dry AD system, up to 16.7 GWh of
power and 14.4 GWh of heat energy can be generated annually and it can
potentially save up to 5,400 Mg of CO2 equivalent per year, presenting the
highest resource/energy benefits. The performance of the wet system and
composting facility present some advantages particularly if there is a previous
segregation of the organic material from the rest of the household wastes.
Moreover, current reforms in Vietnam demonstrate the government’s interest in
AD technologies, translated into the development of fiscal and financial
revenues which incentivize participation from the public and private sector.
Finally, these technologies are constantly under development and have the
potential to be further improved, which gives hopes that waste treatment
systems can be optimized to meet the waste and energy challenges of the future
generations. Free full text https://oa.slub-dresden.de/ejournals/jve/article/view/173.
in broken things: Gendered performances and spatial practices in a northern
Vietnamese rural-urban waste economy.
Minh T. N. Nguyen. American
Ethnologist, 2016, volume 43, number 1, pp. 116-129.
Abstract: Through their deeply
gendered performative and place-making practices, migrant waste traders take
part in regenerating and revaluing urban space in Hanoi, Vietnam. Ethnographic
research in the city and in their native rural district suggests that these
practices are simultaneously strategic and contingent on the waste traders’
gender and class positions. This positioning is defined by their
marginalization as rural migrants and the social ambiguity of waste, which they
creatively use for their own purposes. Alongside creating value for the waste
they deal in, the traders turn marginality and ambiguity into social and
economic spaces essential for communal life and economy, albeit with uncertain
outcomes. These spaces are not locally bounded but part of shifting
trajectories of power in the global market and the urban order of Vietnam.
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governance from public policy unities.
Do Phu Hai, Salvador Roig-Dobón
and José Luis Sánchez-García. Journal of Business Research, 2016, volume 69,
Abstract: This study examines
which configurations explain the public policy for innovative governance
through comparative qualitative analysis (QCA). The research analyzes the
sub-system conditions through a case of Vietnam. The results show the minimum
configurations of key variable conditions to achieve the outcome.
Global Competition Law In Vietnam: A Bottom-Up Perspective.
John Gillespie. International
and Comparative Law Quarterly, 2015, volume 64, pp. 935-63.
Abstract: Global laws are an
important inspiration for commercial law reforms around the world. Much
analysis of this phenomenon emphasizes the capacity of regulatory élites, such
as lawmakers, courts and lawyers, to adapt global laws to local conditions. What
is often absent from this top-down analysis is a wide-ranging consideration of
what the regulated think about global laws. This article aims to redress this
shortcoming in the comparative literature by drawing fresh perspectives from
bottom-up responses to global laws. It takes from socio-legal scholarship a
framework for analyzing the interface between thought formation and social
action and explores the question – how do the regulated conceptualize and
localize global laws? If compliance is socially constructed from below, as this
literature suggests, then attempts to understand legal globalization by
focusing exclusively on regulatory élites misses much of the localization
story. Free full text http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2564340.
corruption in Vietnam: a commentary.
Robert John Gregory. Asian
Education and Development Studies, 2016, volume 5, number 2.
Abstract: Purpose: The primary
purpose of this paper is to discuss the causes and circumstances of what has
become systemic corruption in Vietnam, and the reasons why the moves taken by
the regime to combat it have been largely ineffective so far. ---
Design/methodology/approach: The paper offers a commentary based on published
secondary sources. --- Findings: The paper concludes that the immediate
prospects for any substantial reduction in the level of corruption in Vietnam
appear to be bleak. Endemic corruption, especially in the form of elite
rent-seeking, is likely to remain strong. However, the paper sketches two more
possible scenarios on anti-corruption prospects in the country for the
intermediate future. --- Originality/value: The article relies on secondary
sources in providing a macro-level discussion of corruption in Vietnam.
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and transactional costs of corruption: perspectives from Vietnamese firms.
Thang V. Nguyen, Bao D. Nguyen,
Canh Q. Le and Hung V. Nguyen. Crime, Law and Social Change, 2016, pp. 1-24.
Abstract: Focusing on Vietnam,
this article explores what costs and benefits a firm may get when it engages in
corrupt activities. The research employs three theoretical perspectives, namely
institutional, rent-seeking and resource-based theories, to shed light on
different types of costs and benefits of corruption at the firm level, using a
combination of case studies and quantitative methods. The analysis addresses
different types of costs and benefits of corruption for firms. The quantitative
analysis (supplemented by qualitative interviews) draws on samples of
Vietnamese firms from the Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) and the
General Statistics Office’s firm surveys in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Results show
that firms engage in corrupt activities primarily to follow the ‘rules of the
game’. Commonly accepted benefits of corruption such as transactional benefits
(i.e., better administrative services) or access to business opportunities hold
true only for certain firms. On the other hand, corruption has harmful effects
on a firm’s strategic capability by eroding the integrity culture, demotivating
innovation and risking the firm’s reputation. These harmful effects are
normally hidden and not well-recognized by firms. [spr].
next for anti-corruption research in Vietnam?
Mathieu Tromme. Crime, Law and
Social Change, 2016, pp. 1-14.
Abstract: This article reflects
on the findings presented in this issue and its implications for policy. The
paper emphasises a number of challenges that researchers face, including
technical and practical concerns, but also a difficult political environment
and a changing donor landscape. A number of research gaps are considered, most
notably furthering our understanding of grand corruption, and several
approaches are recommended to study these gaps. Lastly, the article reflects on
how research can affect anti-corruption policy in Vietnam. [spr].
Land and Law in Vietnam.
Gina Alvarado, Khuat Thu Hong,
Zayid Douglas, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao and others.
International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 2015.
Abstract: Access to land is one
of the fundamental economic, social and cultural rights protected under various
international treaties as well as in national constitutions. Yet too often
there is a large gap between the law and women’s ability to claim their rights
as property owners. This report presents findings from a rapid assessment study
that constitutes a baseline for the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) funded program called Vietnam Land Access for Women (LAW).
The Vietnam LAW program is a two year pilot intervention implemented by the
Institute for Social Development Studies (ISDS) and the International Center
for Research on Women (ICRW) that aims to strengthen the reach and efficacy of
land-related rights for farmers, particularly women. This pilot intervention is
taking place in Hung Yen and Long An provinces. The study collected information
about farmers’ ability to access land, and their attitudes and knowledge of
land law, particularly women’s land rights and farmers’ ability to solve
land-related conflicts at the commune level. Data collection took place between
October and November 2014. The team surveyed 864 couples of randomly selected
households and interviewed 48 women and 18 men among local government
representatives, representatives from civil society and farmers in both Hung
Yen and Long An. Free full text http://www.icrw.org/sites/default/files/publications/WomenLandLaw_1.pdf.
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of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal
health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam.
Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang,
Luu Ngoc Hoat, Le Hong Chung, Tran Thi Giang Huong and others. Global health
action, 2016, volume 9.
Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while
progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC) is a key focus of health
policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women
(and children by inference) in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to
maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected
social determinants of health (SDH), termed ‘barriers’. --- Methods: Our study
uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple
Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49
years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic
characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of
health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A
subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383) was
studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple
logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous
two years: 1) antenatal care, 2) skilled birth attendants, and 3) child death
in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1) low
education (incomplete secondary education), 2) lack of access to one of four
basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite
barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence
intervals (95% CI) were used to report regression results. --- Results: In
Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or
lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women
from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of
rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or
lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with
lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.55; OR=0.19,
95% CI: 0.05–0.80) and a higher risk of having had a child death in the
previous two years (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.28–2.30; OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.20–2.10).
--- Conclusions: Our study shows the need for accelerating education and
infrastructure investments for ethnic minority communities living in rural
areas so as to be able to contribute to equity-oriented progress toward UHC.
Free full text http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/28836.
vulnerability of methadone maintenance patients: Implications for policies on
Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thu Thi
Phan, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Anh Tuan Le Nguyen and others.
International Journal of Drug Policy, 2016.
Abstract: Background Co-payment
for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services is a strategy to ensure the
financial sustainability of the HIV/AIDS programs in Vietnam. In this study, we
examined health services utilization and expenditure among MMT patients, and
further explored factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure among
affected households. --- Methods A multi-site cross-sectional study was
conducted among 1,016 patients in two epicentres: Hanoi and Nam Dinh province
in 2013. --- Results Overall, 8.2% and 28.7% respondents used inpatient and
outpatient health care services in the past 12 months apart from receiving MMT.
There were 12.8% respondents experiencing catastrophic health expenditure given
MMT is provided free-of-charge, otherwise 63.5% patients would suffer from
health care costs. MMT integrated with general health or HIV services may
encourage health care services utilization of patients. Patients, who were
single, lived in the rural, had inpatient care and reported problems in
Mobility were more likely to experience catastrophic health expenditure than
other patient groups. --- Conclusions The health care costs are still
financially burden to many drug users and remained over the course of MMT that
implies the necessity of continuous supports from the program. Scaling-up and
decentralizing integrated MMT clinics together with economic empowerments for
treated drug users and their families should be prioritized in Vietnam. [sci].
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EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual adequacy in cross-cultural
Stephanie Linawati Steels.
Health Promotion International, 2016, volume 31, number 1, pp. 242-248.
Abstract: The European Urban
Health Indicators System Project Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) is a cross-national
study that was implemented in Europe. It consists of four data collection tools
that were specifically developed to collect health data at an urban level. This
paper reviews some of the methodological constraints in adapting the EURO-URHIS
2 study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. No attempt to extend the original study
beyond Europe has been reported before. Cultural, political, economic and
social differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. This paper
sets out how these challenges were addressed, examining key aspects of the
methodology, including study design, translation of the questionnaire and data
collection. It was found that the EURO-URHIS 2 adult data collection tool
methodology could not be replicated in Vietnam. A lack of basic infrastructure
and population registers led to significant changes being made to the sampling
and survey administration. It was recommended that the Expanded Programme on
Immunization (EPI) was used as the replacement method. Despite the limitations
in using the EPI method, the overall strengths and benefits were found to
address methodological issues and the resource poor setting.
The feasibility of measuring
and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme:
A qualitative assessment of four countries.
Erik Blas, John E. Ataguba,
Tanvir M. Huda, Giang Kim Bao, Davide Rasella and others. Global Health Action,
2016, volume 9.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since the
publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health
(CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal
pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the
international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an
attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in
defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has
been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation,
analysis and use are to become routine tasks. OBJECTIVE: To test proposed
indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human
rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health
coverage and population health (level and distribution). DESIGN: In an attempt
to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of
social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh,
Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability,
and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve
thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity,
human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources,
descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To
test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that
explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the
media, and civil society leaders. RESULTS: For most countries, monitoring is
possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However,
a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and
validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and
useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating
indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives,
and effectively communicating links to health and ways in which the information
could improve decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: This exercise revealed that for
monitoring to produce reliable data collection, analysis, and discourse, it
will need to be adapted to each national context and institutionalised into
national systems. This will require that capacities and resources for this and
subsequent communication of results are increased across countries for both
national and international monitoring, including the successful implementation
of the SDGs. Free full text http://www.globalhealthaction.net/index.php/gha/article/view/29002.
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