Agriculture and rural development

·        Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

·        An innovative model of park governance: evidence from Vietnam.

Economic development

·        PlaNet Finance: A New Microfinance Loan in Cambodia and Vietnam.

·        Balancing Inclusiveness, Rigour and Feasibility: Insights from Participatory Impact Evaluations in Ghana and Vietnam.

·        Counter-cyclical fiscal policy in Vietnam: Theory, evidence and policy recommendation.

·        Determinants Repayment Performance Of Borrowers In Rural Mekong Delta Of Vietnam.

·        Does Migration Support Technology Diffusion in Developing Countries?

·        Empirical Analysis of Factors Promoting Product Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use.

·        The Factors Affect the Quality of Financial Statements Audit in Vietnam Businesses.

·        Resources, experience and perseverance in entrepreneurs' perceived likelihood of success in an emerging economy.

·        Robust Measures of Core Inflation for Vietnam.


·        Teachers’ Evaluation of Primary English Textbooks for Vietnamese Schools Developed under the National Foreign Language 2020 Project: A Preliminary Internal Survey.

·        Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research “Behaviour Formalization” System.


·        Conservation Versus Development: Valuation of Coral Reefs Questions Port Expansion Plan in Vietnam.

·        Use conflicts in marine ecosystem-based management — The case of oil versus fisheries.

·        Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion technologies for household wastes in Vietnam.

·        Trading in broken things: Gendered performances and spatial practices in a northern Vietnamese rural-urban waste economy.


·        Innovative governance from public policy unities.

·        Localizing Global Competition Law In Vietnam: A Bottom-Up Perspective.

·        Combating corruption in Vietnam: a commentary.

·        Strategic and transactional costs of corruption: perspectives from Vietnamese firms.

·        What next for anti-corruption research in Vietnam?

·        Women, Land and Law in Vietnam.

Health care

·        Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam.

·        Economic vulnerability of methadone maintenance patients: Implications for policies on co-payment services.

·        The EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual adequacy in cross-cultural research.

·        The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme: A qualitative assessment of four countries.

·        Preference and willingness to pay for traditional medicine services in rural ethnic minority community in Vietnam.

·        Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

·        An international partnership analysis of a cohort of Vietnamese children with hearing impairment.

·        Knowledge, attitude and practices: assessing maternal and child health care handbook intervention in Vietnam.

·        Chronological, geographical, and seasonal trends of human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Vietnam, 2003–2014: a spatial analysis.

·        International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy: Challenges and Way Forward.

·        Region-wide synchrony and traveling waves of dengue across eight countries in Southeast Asia.

·        Routes Countries Can Take To Achieve Full Ownership Of Immunization Programs.

·        Measuring progress towards universal health coverage: with an application to 24 developing countries.

·        Seafood safety compliance with hygiene regulations within Vietnamese domestic distribution chains.

·        Projecting the epidemiological effect, cost-effectiveness and transmission of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam associated with viral load monitoring strategies.


·        Infrastructural action in Vietnam: Inverting the techno-politics of hacking in the global South.

·        Changing sanitation infrastructure in Hanoi: hybrid topologies and the networked city.


·        The Nexus between Poverty and Deprivation in Vietnam.

Social development

·        Transgender at Work: Livelihoods for Transgender People in Vietnam.

·        Visual Ethics with and Through the Body: The Participation of Girls with Disabilities in Vietnam in a Photovoice Project.

·        Contesting Street Spaces in a Socialist City: Itinerant Vending-Scapes and the Everyday Politics of Mobility in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Water resources

·        Many Faces of Security: Discursive Framing in Cross-border Natural Resource Governance in the Mekong River Commission.

·        Sustainable Flows: Water Management and Municipal Flexibility in Bangkok and Hanoi.

·        Variability of precipitation and its consequence to water resources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.




Agriculture and rural development


Pesticide knowledge and practice among horticultural workers in the Lâm Đồng region, Vietnam: A case study of chrysanthemum and strawberries.

Michael Houbraken, Ingvar Bauweraerts, Davina Fevery, Marie-Christine Van Labeke and Pieter Spanoghe. Science of The Total Environment, 2016, volume 550, pp. 1001-1009.


Abstract: Background In Vietnam, large amounts of pesticides are being used in agriculture. Next to benefits for agriculture, pesticides impose a huge threat to the environment when they are used in the wrong way. The objective of this work was to determine the level of knowledge and awareness of the smallholder farmers towards the use of pesticides in Vietnam, Dà Lat region. Based on the collected data, an occupational and environmental risk assessment was performed. --- Results The results indicate that the majority of the pesticide operators in the strawberry and chrysanthemum crops have a rather high education. Pesticide knowledge, on the other hand, is usually gained through experience with pests and diseases. Only 30% of the farmers consulted a pesticide specialist or government stewardship for information on (new) pesticide products. Pesticide usage is rather high with application frequencies up to once every three days during the wet season. Pesticide packages are stored to be incinerated (51%) or to be thrown away with the garbage/taken to the landfill (37%). Only a small percentage disposes the packages into the local river (2%). The use of personal protection equipment is well established. Occupational risk assessment showed that the re-entry worker is exposed to a high risk. --- Conclusion While a general awareness of the hazard of pesticides to human health and the environment is present, practical implementation of this awareness, however, is still limited in strawberry and chrysanthemum crop. The environmental risk evaluation indicated plant protection products of which the use should be limited. [sci].


An innovative model of park governance: evidence from Vietnam.

Tuan Phong Ly and Honggen Xiao. Journal of Ecotourism, 2016, pp. 1-23.


Abstract: The Vietnamese Special-Use Forests policy introduced in 2006 has transformed the park and protected area governance of the country from being a state responsibility to a multi-component system, under which power is distributed among public and private sectors. This co-existing management model is a special form of concession. This unique management model has long been applied to the management of national parks (NPs) in Vietnam, but studies on the public and private sectors and/or combined management bodies concurrently managing tourism and recreation services in an NP are scarce. Thus, this study investigates the co-existing management model in the Vietnamese park system with the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park as a case study. The study describes, analyses and evaluates the model, as well as explains how it works in the Vietnamese park system. This study contributes to knowledge on the governance and management of NPs in Vietnam. Practical applications of the governance model to park management in other regions and countries are also discussed. [tf].


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Economic development


PlaNet Finance: A New Microfinance Loan in Cambodia and Vietnam.

Ashwin Malshe. in: Experiencing Innovation in Asia, World Scientific, 2015, pp. 243-256.



In November 2012, Jay Supetran was on a visit to Vietnam and Cambodia to study the impact of a last-stage microfinance project in the agricultural sector. For the past two years he had been working as Regional Coordinator in both countries for French microfinance advisor PlaNet Finance (PF). The project, titled FinInc Asia, was aimed at improving financial inclusion and social impact regarding food security in the region. Specifically, PF was keen to tackle the lack of a relevant financial product for vulnerable farmers in Vietnam and Cambodia. PF worked closely with a few local microfinance institutions (MFIs) to design a new financial product, the ‘Agri-Microfinance’ (AMF) loan. The purpose of the loan and the repayment schedule were to better fit the needs of farmers. As a first step, only a few MFIs were selected by PF to conduct a pilot test for AMF under FinInc Asia. In the pilot test, the Cambodian MFI, Thaneakea Phum Cambodia (TPC) was performing well, whereas the Vietnamese MFI, Thanh Hoa Fund (THF) had barely started to develop its offering in the countryside….


Balancing Inclusiveness, Rigour and Feasibility: Insights from Participatory Impact Evaluations in Ghana and Vietnam.

A. Van Hemelrijck and I. Guijt. IDS CDI Practice Paper 14, 2016.


Abstract: This paper by Adinda Van Hemelrijck and Irene Guijt explores how impact evaluation can live up to standards broader than statistical rigour in ways that address challenges of complexity and enable stakeholders to engage meaningfully. A Participatory Impact Assessment and Learning Approach (PIALA) was piloted to assess and debate the impacts on rural poverty of two government programmes in Vietnam and Ghana funded by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). We discuss the trade-offs between rigour, inclusiveness and feasibility encountered in these two pilots. Trade-offs occur in every impact evaluation aiming for more than reductionist rigour, but the pilots suggest that they can be reduced by building sufficient research and learning capacity. Free full text


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Counter-cyclical fiscal policy in Vietnam: Theory, evidence and policy recommendation.

Tran Dinh Thien and Chu Minh Hoi. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 2016, volume 4, number 10.


Abstract: A sound fiscal policy could determine long-term development of a country. Developing countries normally pursue pro-cyclical fiscal policy while advanced ones have better conditions to adapt a more counter-cyclical one. In practice, a developing country may still succeed in implementing a counter-cyclical policy, and a pro-cyclical policy could result in a major failure even if it is executed by a developed country. Real situation in Vietnam uncovers that the country has not indentified a clear fiscal stance in the last 30 years; although government expenditure seems to be expansionary most of the time, and budget deficit high is even in good time period. Structural problems of the economy have recently emerged, manifisted in slowing economic growth, inflation volatility. It is potentially largely due to lack of a consistent fical policy. Implication is drawn  that Vietnam should institutionalize a counter-cyclical fiscal policy. Free full text


Determinants Repayment Performance Of Borrowers In Rural Mekong Delta Of Vietnam.

Mai Van Nam and Vuong Quoc Duy. IJISET - International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, 2016, volume 3, number 1.


Abstract: This paper compares the repayment performance of farmers and non-farmers who borrow credit in individual and group-based schemes from formal banks in the Mekong Delta (MD) in Vietnam. The data used in this paper were collected from three provinces of the MD, and a double hurdle approach and an instrumental variable probit model were applied to analyse the determinants of repayment performance of borrowers. Scheduled repayment was analysed with loan size instrumented by a tobit model. Results show that, among the borrowers, farmers have a statistically significant higher repayment performance than non-farmers. Repayment in group schemes seems to be positively affected by educational level and by loans to farmers, and negatively by the loan amount, while repayment by independent borrowers is positively affected by the loan amount, farmers as borrowers, and the gender of borrowers. Free full text


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Does Migration Support Technology Diffusion in Developing Countries?

Michael Hübler. World Development, 2016.


Abstract: Summary The spread of mobile phones in developing countries is a technological success story. Mobile phones’ independence of landline telecommunication networks qualifies them for information exchange even in remote rural areas. Whereas technology spillovers via international trade and foreign direct investment have been widely explored by the literature, international migration and rural–urban migration have hardly been explored as vehicles for technology diffusion. Motivated by the current extent of national and international migration, this paper addresses this lacuna. It draws upon data from rural households in Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia and uses households’ mobile phone ownership as an indicator for rural technology diffusion. Migration is modeled via an endogenous treatment regression approach. In a number of robustness checks, the variables, the sample, and the estimation technique are varied. The results provide empirical evidence for rural technology diffusion. In the survey areas, poverty-driven rural–urban migration and related technology diffusion play a more important role than technology spillovers via international migration. The results show that total emigration as well as immigration can support technology diffusion, i.e., the dispersion of mobile phones, beyond monetary remittances. When controlling for education and household age (in a squared fashion) in the main regressions and in several robustness checks, emigration as well as immigration, however, exhibit a negative effect on households’ mobile phone ownership (“technology drain” or “technology impair” effect). For development policy, the results suggest investments in education and the creation of financial opportunities to support rural technology diffusion. [sci].


Empirical Analysis of Factors Promoting Product Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use.

Hiroki Idota, Teruyuki Bunno, Yasushi Ueki and Sobee Shinohara, 2016.


Abstract: In recent years, East Asian economies have been rapidly developing. The reason is that firms have been successfully achieving product and process innovation by introducing advanced technologies and know-how from MNCs. In order to enhance innovation, firms have to own technology, capability and ICT use. In particular, collaborations with outside organizations such as MNCs (Multi-national corporations), universities, public organizations, local firms are indispensable for firms in developing economies. Authors’ previous research clarified external linkages enhance innovation capability and ICT use, and innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation in ASEAN firms. These studies analyzed under what conditions firms can promote absorptive capability if they had external linkages. Whether or how absorptive capacity affected innovation capability and ICT use were not explained there. Based on survey data from four ASEAN economies such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, from 2013 to 2014, this study clarifies how absorptive capacity, ICTs, and innovation capability such as QC and cross-functional team enhance product innovation by using SEM (Structural equation modeling). As a result, the following causality from external linkages (origin) to innovation (final outcome) is demonstrated: (i) absorptive capacity is enhanced by external linkages such as local firms, public organizations, and universities; (ii) absorptive capacity enhances innovation capability; (iii) innovation capability enhances ICT use; and (iv) innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation. These are similar to those of authors’ previous research. Since data are different, it is difficult to compare the results, but the robustness of the results is demonstrated. Free full text


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The Factors Affect the Quality of Financial Statements Audit in Vietnam Businesses.

Do Huu Hai and Ngo Sy Trung. Asian Social Science, 2016, volume 12, number 1.


Abstract: The development of a market economy, especially the financial markets is asking for transparency and truthfulness of the financial information with high quality. The information in the financial statements will impact directly and indirectly to the rights and decisions of investors. Independent auditors play a role of evaluating truthfulness and reasonable financial information in enterprises, however there are still risks. This study focuses on analyzing the factors affecting the quality of financial statements audit in enterprises. The analytical methods used in this study are: factor analysis method to explore and test the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the construction and testing of measuring scales. Moreover, linear structural modeling method (Structural Equation Modeling SEM) is used to test the reliability and value of discrimination, convergence, unitary of the concept and scale of research. The study results showed that occupational qualification is an important factor affecting the audit quality in the establishment of the business financial statements and legal environment factors, factors belonging to business, factor of independence, factors of quality control system of audit firm. Free full text


Resources, experience and perseverance in entrepreneurs' perceived likelihood of success in an emerging economy.

Quan Hoang Vuong, Thu Hang Do and Thu Trang Vuong, 2016.


Abstract: This paper introduces new results obtained from a statistical investigation into a3071-observation data set collected from a Vietnamese nationwideentrepreneurship survey. From established relationships, such factors aspreparedness, financial resources and participation in social networks areconfirmed to have significant effects on entrepreneurial decisions. Entrepreneurs,both financially constrained and unconstrained, who have a business plan tend tostart their entrepreneurial ventures earlier. Also, financial constraints have aprofound impact on the entrepreneurial decisions. When perceiving the likelihoodof success to be high, an entrepreneur shows the tendency for prompt action onbusiness ideas. But when seeing the risk of prolonging the waiting time to firstrevenue, a prospective entrepreneur would be more likely to wait for morefavorable conditions despite the vagueness of "favorable".Additionally, empirical computations indicate that there is a 41.3% probabi litythat an extant entrepreneur who is generating revenue sees high chance ofsuccess. Past work and entrepreneurial experiences also have positive impactson both the entrepreneurial decisions and perceived chance of success. . Free full text


Robust Measures of Core Inflation for Vietnam.

Sanjay Kalra and Bui Thi Trang Dzung. IMF Working Paper No. 16/19, 2016.


Abstract: The paper develops robust measures of core inflation for Vietnam that can be used in policy making. These core inflation measures (CIMs) are based on an analytical evaluation of the inflation process in Vietnam, and use a filtering approach to narrow down potential measures that satisfy certain empirically desirable criteria. The paper finds that commonly used exclusion-based measures (EBMs) do not perform well against these empirical criteria; trimmed mean measures (TMMs) do better. Among TMMs, “one trim does not fit all periods”; periods of high and variable inflation require larger trims, and conversely. EVIEWS and MATLAB programs which accompany the paper allow quick, timely replication of CIMs as new data become available, making them valuable tools for the State Bank of Vietnam on an ongoing basis. Free full text


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Teachers’ Evaluation of Primary English Textbooks for Vietnamese Schools Developed under the National Foreign Language 2020 Project: A Preliminary Internal Survey.

Hoang Van Van. VNU Journal of Science: Education Research, 2015, volume 31, number 4.


Abstract: The aim of this survey research is to get evaluative feedback from the teachers who are using the primary English textbooks developed under the National Foreign Language 2020 Project to find out their strengths and weaknesses so that further corrections and revisions will be made to perfect the materials before putting them into use on a large scale. Overall, the results of the research have shown that teachers’ evaluations of the textbooks are very positive. There are, however, some things that need to be done to improve the quality of the materials. The research consists of 4 parts. Part 1 provides a brief overview of Ting Anh 3 and Ting Anh 4 - the two English textbooks which are being piloted in 92 selected primary schools throughout Vietnam. Part 2 is concerned with the design of the research which consists of aim of the research, sites and subjects of the research, research instrument, the questionnaire, research procedure, and method of data analysis. Part 3 presents in some detail research findings and discussion of those findings. Part 4 provides a résumé of the strengths and weaknesses of the textbooks as seen from the point of view of the teachers’ evaluations, points out some limitations of the research and makes some suggestions and recommendation for further study. Free full text


Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research “Behaviour Formalization” System.

Huong Thi Lan Nguyen and Vincent Lynn Meek. Minerva, 2016, pp. 1-29.


Abstract: Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and organization of research at four leading Vietnamese universities. Through document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 55 participants, the study finds that the four case-study Vietnamese universities have accomplished a number of the more visible tasks of research management such as creating research and research management positions; deciding primary organizational units for research delivery; creating a research office; and creating research oversight committees. However, they seem to neglect the other less visible tasks of organizing and structuring research such as developing rules for research integrity; developing a mechanism for evaluating the quality of research outcomes; preparing researchers and research managers for the necessary skills and knowledge; and deciding vertical and horizontal decentralization. The study concludes that even though research has been formally structured and organized, the management of research has not yet been professionalized. The key problem in organizing and structuring research is the lack of an effective system for research behaviour formalization. A more effective system for better formalizing research behaviours should be developed so that Vietnamese universities can integrate more successfully into the global research.


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Conservation Versus Development: Valuation of Coral Reefs Questions Port Expansion Plan in Vietnam.

Pham Khanh Nam and Tran Vo Hung Son. in: Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Valuation, Institutions, and Policy in Southeast Asia, Springer Singapore, Singapore, 2016, pp. 47-69.


Abstract: Coral reefs in Nha Trang City have been threatened by human activities such as use of dynamite, illegal harvesting, shipping, and pollution from the nearby port development project. How much recreational benefit from coral reefs is lost if these activities are not held in check? Using travel cost method, this study estimated the recreational value of coral reefs in Nha Trang to be VND 259.8 billion (USD18.3 million) annually, of which Hon Mun’s consumer surplus was estimated to be VND 45.4 billion (USD3.2 million). If this coral reef benefits were to be reduced by 20 % due to increased pollution created by the nearby expanded port, the resulting decrease in the recreational value would be more than the projected annual revenue of the port. The proposed port expansion plan needs to be seriously reconsidered. [spr].


Use conflicts in marine ecosystem-based management — The case of oil versus fisheries.

Peter Arbo and Phạm Thị Thanh Thủy. Ocean & Coastal Management, 2016, volume 122, pp. 77-86.


Abstract: Coastal states around the world are currently adopting an integrated and ecosystem-based approach to the management of coastal and ocean areas. The main aim is to promote resource use while protecting the integrity of the marine ecosystems. Focus is therefore on the conflict between economic development and conservation. Less attention is paid to the complex uses of the ocean and the conditions for regulating industrial activities and solving multi-use conflicts. This paper discusses principles for dealing with use conflicts in the context of ecosystem-based management. It argues that resolving use conflicts is not only an important issue in its own right, but can also be important for the marine environment and biodiversity. As an illustration, we look at the relationship between the fishing industry and the offshore oil and gas industry in Norway and Vietnam. [sci].


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Feasibility assessment of anaerobic digestion technologies for household wastes in Vietnam.

Rodolfo Daniel SILVA, Hung Anh LE and Konrad KOCH. Journal of Vietnamese Environment, 2016, volume 7, number 1.


Abstract: Anaerobic digestion technologies have been utilized in Vietnam for more than 30 years with thousands of domestic small scale plants, mostly for agricultural and livestock wastes. For municipal solid waste (MSW) the development of biogas plants is far below the current high waste generation rates. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a feasibility assessment of implementing AD to treat the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) in Vietnam. For this purpose, an environmental analysis was performed comparing three treatment scenarios: two hypothetical AD technologies (a wet and a dry fermentation system) and the existing industrial composting facility at Nam Binh Duong Waste Treatment Complex in South Vietnam. This study sought for the technology to recover the most possible resources and energy from the OFMSW, and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results were then combined with a policy review to support a holistic approach on the feasibility of these technologies in Vietnam. The outcome indicates that by implementing the dry AD system, up to 16.7 GWh of power and 14.4 GWh of heat energy can be generated annually and it can potentially save up to 5,400 Mg of CO2 equivalent per year, presenting the highest resource/energy benefits. The performance of the wet system and composting facility present some advantages particularly if there is a previous segregation of the organic material from the rest of the household wastes. Moreover, current reforms in Vietnam demonstrate the government’s interest in AD technologies, translated into the development of fiscal and financial revenues which incentivize participation from the public and private sector. Finally, these technologies are constantly under development and have the potential to be further improved, which gives hopes that waste treatment systems can be optimized to meet the waste and energy challenges of the future generations. Free full text


Trading in broken things: Gendered performances and spatial practices in a northern Vietnamese rural-urban waste economy.

Minh T. N. Nguyen. American Ethnologist, 2016, volume 43, number 1, pp. 116-129.


Abstract: Through their deeply gendered performative and place-making practices, migrant waste traders take part in regenerating and revaluing urban space in Hanoi, Vietnam. Ethnographic research in the city and in their native rural district suggests that these practices are simultaneously strategic and contingent on the waste traders’ gender and class positions. This positioning is defined by their marginalization as rural migrants and the social ambiguity of waste, which they creatively use for their own purposes. Alongside creating value for the waste they deal in, the traders turn marginality and ambiguity into social and economic spaces essential for communal life and economy, albeit with uncertain outcomes. These spaces are not locally bounded but part of shifting trajectories of power in the global market and the urban order of Vietnam. [wiley].


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Innovative governance from public policy unities.

Do Phu Hai, Salvador Roig-Dobón and José Luis Sánchez-García. Journal of Business Research, 2016, volume 69, number 4.


Abstract: This study examines which configurations explain the public policy for innovative governance through comparative qualitative analysis (QCA). The research analyzes the sub-system conditions through a case of Vietnam. The results show the minimum configurations of key variable conditions to achieve the outcome.


Localizing Global Competition Law In Vietnam: A Bottom-Up Perspective.

John Gillespie. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 2015, volume 64, pp. 935-63.


Abstract: Global laws are an important inspiration for commercial law reforms around the world. Much analysis of this phenomenon emphasizes the capacity of regulatory élites, such as lawmakers, courts and lawyers, to adapt global laws to local conditions. What is often absent from this top-down analysis is a wide-ranging consideration of what the regulated think about global laws. This article aims to redress this shortcoming in the comparative literature by drawing fresh perspectives from bottom-up responses to global laws. It takes from socio-legal scholarship a framework for analyzing the interface between thought formation and social action and explores the question – how do the regulated conceptualize and localize global laws? If compliance is socially constructed from below, as this literature suggests, then attempts to understand legal globalization by focusing exclusively on regulatory élites misses much of the localization story. Free full text


Combating corruption in Vietnam: a commentary.

Robert John Gregory. Asian Education and Development Studies, 2016, volume 5, number 2.


Abstract: Purpose: The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the causes and circumstances of what has become systemic corruption in Vietnam, and the reasons why the moves taken by the regime to combat it have been largely ineffective so far. --- Design/methodology/approach: The paper offers a commentary based on published secondary sources. --- Findings: The paper concludes that the immediate prospects for any substantial reduction in the level of corruption in Vietnam appear to be bleak. Endemic corruption, especially in the form of elite rent-seeking, is likely to remain strong. However, the paper sketches two more possible scenarios on anti-corruption prospects in the country for the intermediate future. --- Originality/value: The article relies on secondary sources in providing a macro-level discussion of corruption in Vietnam.


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Strategic and transactional costs of corruption: perspectives from Vietnamese firms.

Thang V. Nguyen, Bao D. Nguyen, Canh Q. Le and Hung V. Nguyen. Crime, Law and Social Change, 2016, pp. 1-24.


Abstract: Focusing on Vietnam, this article explores what costs and benefits a firm may get when it engages in corrupt activities. The research employs three theoretical perspectives, namely institutional, rent-seeking and resource-based theories, to shed light on different types of costs and benefits of corruption at the firm level, using a combination of case studies and quantitative methods. The analysis addresses different types of costs and benefits of corruption for firms. The quantitative analysis (supplemented by qualitative interviews) draws on samples of Vietnamese firms from the Provincial Competitiveness Index (PCI) and the General Statistics Office’s firm surveys in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Results show that firms engage in corrupt activities primarily to follow the ‘rules of the game’. Commonly accepted benefits of corruption such as transactional benefits (i.e., better administrative services) or access to business opportunities hold true only for certain firms. On the other hand, corruption has harmful effects on a firm’s strategic capability by eroding the integrity culture, demotivating innovation and risking the firm’s reputation. These harmful effects are normally hidden and not well-recognized by firms. [spr].


What next for anti-corruption research in Vietnam?

Mathieu Tromme. Crime, Law and Social Change, 2016, pp. 1-14.


Abstract: This article reflects on the findings presented in this issue and its implications for policy. The paper emphasises a number of challenges that researchers face, including technical and practical concerns, but also a difficult political environment and a changing donor landscape. A number of research gaps are considered, most notably furthering our understanding of grand corruption, and several approaches are recommended to study these gaps. Lastly, the article reflects on how research can affect anti-corruption policy in Vietnam. [spr].


Women, Land and Law in Vietnam.

Gina Alvarado, Khuat Thu Hong, Zayid Douglas, Nguyen Thi Van Anh, Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao and others. International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), 2015.


Abstract: Access to land is one of the fundamental economic, social and cultural rights protected under various international treaties as well as in national constitutions. Yet too often there is a large gap between the law and women’s ability to claim their rights as property owners. This report presents findings from a rapid assessment study that constitutes a baseline for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded program called Vietnam Land Access for Women (LAW). The Vietnam LAW program is a two year pilot intervention implemented by the Institute for Social Development Studies (ISDS) and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) that aims to strengthen the reach and efficacy of land-related rights for farmers, particularly women. This pilot intervention is taking place in Hung Yen and Long An provinces. The study collected information about farmers’ ability to access land, and their attitudes and knowledge of land law, particularly women’s land rights and farmers’ ability to solve land-related conflicts at the commune level. Data collection took place between October and November 2014. The team surveyed 864 couples of randomly selected households and interviewed 48 women and 18 men among local government  representatives, representatives from civil society and farmers in both Hung Yen and Long An. Free full text


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Health care


Analysis of selected social determinants of health and their relationships with maternal health service coverage and child mortality in Vietnam.

Hoang Van Minh, Kim Bao Giang, Luu Ngoc Hoat, Le Hong Chung, Tran Thi Giang Huong and others. Global health action, 2016, volume 9.


Abstract: Introduction: Achieving a fair and equitable distribution of health in the population while progressing toward universal health coverage (UHC) is a key focus of health policy in Vietnam. This paper describes health barriers experienced by women (and children by inference) in Vietnam, and measures how UHC, with reference to maternal health services and child mortality rates, is affected by selected social determinants of health (SDH), termed ‘barriers’. --- Methods: Our study uses a cross-sectional design with data from the 2011 Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The study sample includes 11,663 women, aged 15–49 years. Weighted frequency statistics are cross-tabulated with socioeconomic characteristics of the population to describe the extent and distribution of health barriers experienced by disadvantaged women and children in Vietnam. A subset of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years (n=1,383) was studied to assess the impact of barriers to UHC and health. Six multiple logistic regressions were run using three dependent variables in the previous two years: 1) antenatal care, 2) skilled birth attendants, and 3) child death in the previous 15 years. Independent predictor variables were: 1) low education (incomplete secondary education), 2) lack of access to one of four basic amenities. In a second set of regressions, a constructed composite barrier index replaced these variables. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to report regression results. --- Results: In Vietnam, about 54% of women aged 15–49 years in 2011, had low education or lacked access to one of four basic amenities. About 38% of poor rural women from ethnic minorities experienced both barriers, compared with less than 1% of rich urban women from the ethnic majority. Incomplete secondary education or lack of one of four basic amenities was a factor significantly associated with lower access to skilled birth attendants (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.55; OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.05–0.80) and a higher risk of having had a child death in the previous two years (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.28–2.30; OR=1.59, 95% CI: 1.20–2.10). --- Conclusions: Our study shows the need for accelerating education and infrastructure investments for ethnic minority communities living in rural areas so as to be able to contribute to equity-oriented progress toward UHC. Free full text


Economic vulnerability of methadone maintenance patients: Implications for policies on co-payment services.

Bach Xuan Tran, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Long Hoang Nguyen, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Anh Tuan Le Nguyen and others. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2016.


Abstract: Background Co-payment for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services is a strategy to ensure the financial sustainability of the HIV/AIDS programs in Vietnam. In this study, we examined health services utilization and expenditure among MMT patients, and further explored factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure among affected households. --- Methods A multi-site cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,016 patients in two epicentres: Hanoi and Nam Dinh province in 2013. --- Results Overall, 8.2% and 28.7% respondents used inpatient and outpatient health care services in the past 12 months apart from receiving MMT. There were 12.8% respondents experiencing catastrophic health expenditure given MMT is provided free-of-charge, otherwise 63.5% patients would suffer from health care costs. MMT integrated with general health or HIV services may encourage health care services utilization of patients. Patients, who were single, lived in the rural, had inpatient care and reported problems in Mobility were more likely to experience catastrophic health expenditure than other patient groups. --- Conclusions The health care costs are still financially burden to many drug users and remained over the course of MMT that implies the necessity of continuous supports from the program. Scaling-up and decentralizing integrated MMT clinics together with economic empowerments for treated drug users and their families should be prioritized in Vietnam. [sci].


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The EURO-URHIS 2 project in Ho Chi Min City: contextual adequacy in cross-cultural research.

Stephanie Linawati Steels. Health Promotion International, 2016, volume 31, number 1, pp. 242-248.


Abstract: The European Urban Health Indicators System Project Part 2 (EURO-URHIS 2) is a cross-national study that was implemented in Europe. It consists of four data collection tools that were specifically developed to collect health data at an urban level. This paper reviews some of the methodological constraints in adapting the EURO-URHIS 2 study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. No attempt to extend the original study beyond Europe has been reported before. Cultural, political, economic and social differences create specific obstacles as well as challenges. This paper sets out how these challenges were addressed, examining key aspects of the methodology, including study design, translation of the questionnaire and data collection. It was found that the EURO-URHIS 2 adult data collection tool methodology could not be replicated in Vietnam. A lack of basic infrastructure and population registers led to significant changes being made to the sampling and survey administration. It was recommended that the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was used as the replacement method. Despite the limitations in using the EPI method, the overall strengths and benefits were found to address methodological issues and the resource poor setting.


The feasibility of measuring and monitoring social determinants of health and the relevance for policy and programme: A qualitative assessment of four countries.

Erik Blas, John E. Ataguba, Tanvir M. Huda, Giang Kim Bao, Davide Rasella and others. Global Health Action, 2016, volume 9.


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the reports by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), many research papers have documented inequities, explaining causal pathways in order to inform policy and programmatic decision-making. At the international level, the sustainable development goals (SDGs) reflect an attempt to bring together these themes and the complexities involved in defining a comprehensive development framework. However, to date, much less has been done to address the monitoring challenges, that is, how data generation, analysis and use are to become routine tasks. OBJECTIVE: To test proposed indicators of social determinants of health (SDH), gender, equity, and human rights with respect to their relevance in tracking progress in universal health coverage and population health (level and distribution). DESIGN: In an attempt to explore these monitoring challenges, indicators covering a wide range of social determinants were tested in four country case studies (Bangladesh, Brazil, South Africa, and Vietnam) for their technical feasibility, reliability, and validity, and their communicability and usefulness to policy-makers. Twelve thematic domains with 20 core indicators covering different aspects of equity, human rights, gender, and SDH were tested through a review of data sources, descriptive analyses, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. To test the communicability and usefulness of the domains, domain narratives that explained the causal pathways were presented to policy-makers, managers, the media, and civil society leaders. RESULTS: For most countries, monitoring is possible, as some data were available for most of the core indicators. However, a qualitative assessment showed that technical feasibility, reliability, and validity varied across indicators and countries. Producing understandable and useful information proved challenging, and particularly so in translating indicator definitions and data into meaningful lay and managerial narratives, and effectively communicating links to health and ways in which the information could improve decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: This exercise revealed that for monitoring to produce reliable data collection, analysis, and discourse, it will need to be adapted to each national context and institutionalised into national systems. This will require that capacities and resources for this and subsequent communication of results are increased across countries for both national and international monitoring, including the successful implementation of the SDGs. Free full text


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